Volume 1, Issue 2 (7-2014)                   Jsaeh 2014, 1(2): 15-28 | Back to browse issues page

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Afrakhteh H. Intensification of Environmental Disasters in Maklevan village due to the Promotion of its Political Situation. . Jsaeh. 2014; 1 (2) :15-28
URL: http://jsaeh.khu.ac.ir/article-1-2450-en.html
Abstract:   (1673 Views)

Settlement's Systems are evolving as any other systemic phenomenon. Multitudinous and different factors are involved in settlements evolution and shaping. One of the effective factors on settlement system evolution is society public power intervention and planning based on approaches which had been approved as predominant paradigm on its time.    

Creation and reinforcement of growth poles was considered as national economic growth instrument in developing country, till 1970. It was supposed that growth pole effect will cause surrounding area's prosperity. The theory of Perroux growth pole was one of these theories in regional planning.

During recent years, some rural settlements of country have experienced physical-spatial changes and have transformed to Towns. These processes have been rising based on theoretical approaches related to spatial development or according to political consideration and election requirements. This trend imposed inconsistency landscape to settlements, and has been the source of crises and economic, social, management and environmental disasters.

     The main question in this research is "what has been the environmental subsequent of Maklevan evolution based on rural planning and also political consideration, and alteration it into town from 2013? Study area of research is Maklevan in Fuman county, Guilan province, Iran. Required data are collected from documents, Satellite images, and field study and questionnaire fulfillment. Collected data has analyzed based on variable frequencies distribution and locational-spatial approaches. Documents show that Maklevan development trend was done without passing any gradual organic process and only inspired from growth pole theory. Assignment the role of service center (services including health, education, agricultural, post, bank, administrative, business services, and Saturdays week local market), creation of main big avenue and concentration of investment (although limited) with the purpose of hinterland development and population centralization, are some of these evidences. That outcome of current development trend in Maklevan is creation a situation which has reinforces incidence and prevalence of environmental hazards including:

  • Destruction and loss of agricultural soil, the soil of Maklevan was very rich for rice cultivation, because it is provided from alluvial of Masuleh Rudkhan River. Deficiency of arable soil is considerable, therefore arable soil elimination could result to food insecurity, unemployment, extension of unofficial jobs in the region and urban fringes. Research depicted that the area of paddy lands were reduced from 1.27 square kilometers to 0.8 square kilometers during 5 years (2010-2015), which means that 46 percent of rich paddy lands has been reduced. Agricultural lands and forest has been destructed by establishment of unnecessary roads and villas. Due to above mentioned changes the area of Maklenan (constructed area) was increased from 6.12 square kilometers to 12.11square kilometers during last five years (2010-2015).
  • Destruction of forest and flood extension risk, regarding to climate situation of area, topography and kind of soil, the probability of flood risk and landfall has been increased. The evidence of land destruction, housing and bridge by the flood obviously can be seen in the point of bridge between Maklevan and Kondesar.
  • As the experience of Masuleh shows, concentration of population in a location such as Maklevan will intensify the pollution of water resources especially Masuleh Rudhan River, because of the drainage of all wastewater are into this River.
  • Undermining the foundations of traditional production and its subsidiary production, elimination of handicraft production and vernacular architecture resulted into the attenuation of area tourism foundation. Extension of Tourism activities was one of the main goals of Maklevan development.
  • Due to Physical disturbance, functionally Maklevan has become a space that is urban space nor rural. Livelihood system shows the coexistence of agricultural, animal husbandry, service and business activities. Modern buildings are seen besides the cottages.

     As a conclusion it can be said that growth pole theory is not suitable approach for settlements development in the country, or at least in the studied area. Since land use control and management should be in accordance with existing local reality. Land use planning process should be responsible of three fundamental questions: where are we? Where are we going? How can we arrive there? Rational decision making, different situation flexible approaches, emphasis on conservation of sustainability, harmony with nature, can prevent from adverse consequences of interference in nature. Therefore, abrupt town creation without gradual processes and using indigenous knowledge and people participation doesn't lead to creation of sustainable cities, but its outcome will irreparable harm to people and natural resources.

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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2016/05/27 | Accepted: 2016/05/27 | Published: 2016/05/27

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