Volume 4, Issue 1 (4-2017)                   Jsaeh 2017, 4(1): 97-112 | Back to browse issues page

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nikpour N, fotohi S, negaresh H, sistani M. Morphometric of gully erosion (ditch) and factors affecting the development of the basin plains on southern West ILAM CHAM FAZEL. Jsaeh. 2017; 4 (1) :97-112
URL: http://jsaeh.khu.ac.ir/article-1-2696-en.html
1- PHD student in geomorphology , no.nikpour@gmail.com
2- Associate Professor in geomorphology
3- Professor in geomorphology
4- PHD student in geomorphology
Abstract:   (1772 Views)

Has been stated in various sources, soil as one of the most important natural resources has a major, role on the lives of humans. Today soil erosion and sediment production, a problem that is increasing day to day process and loss of surface soils and sediment accumulation in dam reservoirs, canals and also sedimentation damage to the country's economy. One of the most important types of water erosion, gully erosion or (Galli formation). This type of erosion and loss of soil due to sediment production and enormous damages to land, roads and infrastructures, is of great importance. Soil erosion is one of the most important factors that threatens large areas of Iran annually and decreases or eliminates the quality of agricultural lands and rangelands. Due to highlands of Iran in comparison with the grounds and surrounding plains (mean elevation of 1250 m), it has been affected by water erosion. So it is very important to study erosion and present management strategies to reduce the impacts of erosion in basins of Iran. This study to Target morphometry gullies and the influencing factors on gully erosion in the South West sub-basin of ILAM (Cham Fusel).

The average height in the area between 50 and 1,200 meters above sea level and has a dry climate with an average annual rainfall of less than 200 mm and the average annual temperature is above 25 degrees C°. In terms of the main geological formation of this area is affected by gully erosion, Aghajari formation (red mudstone, siltstone and sandstone) are related to Miocene period. Basin area of over 150 hectares affected by gully erosion and slope threshold for gully erosion in the area between 8-2 percent.

The research method in this study is field research, library study and morphometric measurements of gully erosion forms. Besides, on the basis of the geological maps of 1/100000 and topographic 1/50000 and DEM 30 meter area, the software of GIS Arc has been used to make the required maps. Furthermore, the GPS device and a camera has been used in the field to harvest. o

The average height in the area between 50 and 1,200 meters above sea level and has a dry climate with an average annual rainfall of less than 200 mm and the average annual temperature is above 25 degrees C°. In terms of the main geological formation of this area is affected by gully erosion, Aghajari formation (red mudstone, siltstone and sandstone) are related to Miocene period. Basin area of over 150 hectares affected by gully erosion and slope threshold for gully erosion in the area between 8-2 percent. The study, which the sub basin in Cham Fusel ILAM province is located in the South West, with the aim of gully morphometric including deep, height, length, height from sea level, and geographical location as well as classification criteria in three sample gully gully of area, In order to identify factors affecting the development of erosion in the basin plain Cham Fusel was evaluated. The results of morphometric and field visits to the region, factors such as climate factors, slope and aspect, geology (Land genus), tectonic activity and faulting, land use, overgrazing of amount plants, including the most important factors recognized were identified in the development of gully. Which layers to extract some of these factors in Arc GIS software designed and based on creation of maps and data to analyze each of these parameters and their impact on Gully Erosion percent has been paid.

According to the morphometric data, it can be concluded that the gullies basin largely toothed and clawed, permanent, of medium to large gullies, which have expanded continuously. Below you can see images of morphometric gullies sample was collected during the field visit of the area. The results show that due to the widespread earthquake in the region in recent years and local faults can be concluded that one of the most important factors in the formation Galli uplift of the Earth. Also overgrazing by cattle ranchers in the area Tuesday Abdanan city, murmury, Dahlgren and ranchers outside the province of Hamedan and Kermanshah provinces such as ranchers who use the area as Qishlaq, Another important factor in the development of gully erosion in the area. Due to the climatic amount of rain, sleet, snow, ice, temperature and wind could be the climate factors in the rise of water erosion. As the geographical location and local climatological data suggests, the study area is influenced by the Mediterranean winter rains. Which are imported to Country from the West in winter and more in the form of showers and hail rainstorm conditions caused severe erosion gully in the area easy. Lack of growth of vegetation and bare Land is another contributing factor is considered in the development of gully erosion in the area. That is because the rainy season in the winter when the soil in the area is almost devoid of vegetation. The lack of vegetation in the region as one of the important factors, has caused soil erosion, its most destructive erosion of the gullies show. Also according to the map slope and aspect of the region was marked within the range of between 2-8 percent and Create Gully and aspect with the West and the South West and North West are more affected by gully erosion. Finally, all factors except factors of land use, all other factors were named among the important factors affecting the development of gully erosion are the region. It was also found other factors in the evolution of land use contrary to gully erosion region. That is because of the lack of culture in this area and dropping land by farmers as wasteland, and also because of the recent drought in the region has caused more and more extend of gully erosion and land with the ability crop damage and destroy all. The results obtained showed that the study area in terms of of gully erosion in critical condition.

Full-Text [PDF 1882 kb]   (698 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: General
Received: 2017/07/10 | Accepted: 2017/07/10 | Published: 2017/07/10

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