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aalinejad M H, Jahanbakhsh ASL S. Simulation of runoff from Gamasiab basin snowmelt with SRM model. Journal of Spatial Analysis Environmental Hazards 2021; 8 (1) :21-36
URL: http://jsaeh.khu.ac.ir/article-1-3119-en.html
1- University of Tabriz , Aalineghad63@yahoo.com
2- University of Tabriz
Abstract:   (2448 Views)

  
Simulation of runoff from Gamasiab basin snowmelt with SRM model
 
 
Abstract
Snow cover in a basin affect its water balance and energy balance. So, snow cover variation is a major factor in climate change of a region. Study of temporal variation of snowmelt and snow water equivalent depth is very important in flood forecasting, reservoir management and agricultural activities of an area. In the most of the mountainous basins of the country, information on snow cover were not available. Also, the number of meteorological stations in high altitude areas do not match with information needed for snowmelt simulation. Therefore, indirect methods such as the analysis of satellite images to obtain the needed parameters for simulation is necessary, which is the one of the most effective methods in estimation of runoff originated from snow. Using the NOAA satellite data for zoning the snow cover of area started firstly in the USA since the 1961 and continuous until today (spatial and temporal resolution of satellite images increased by starting the MODIS work).
Gamasiab River is one of the important branches of Karkheh basin. Its basin area is about 11040 km2 between latitude 47 degrees 7 minutes to 49 degrees 10 minutes east and latitude 33 degrees 48 minutes 4 degrees 85 minutes north. The altitude of this basin is 1275 to 3680 meters above sea level. In this study, for simulation of runoff originated from melting snow, firstly snow cover in the basin of Gamasiab in 2014 to 2017 calculated by using the satellite images of MODIS in the google earth engine system. Also, air temperature and precipitation data of synoptic stations in the area of study and daily stream flow discharges of Polechehr hydrometric station, from November of 2014 to July of 2017 was used. Then, weather and snow cover area included as the input of SRM for simulation of snowmelt runoff. To obtain the information needed to the model, physiographic characteristics of the basin including the area and different classes of height obtained from the Arc-Hydro and Hec_GeoHMS in DEM maps of GIS software. Then the snow cover areas obtained from the images of MODIS in daily interval that obtained by google earth engine system.
Using the digital elevation map (DEM) and the accession of the Arc-Hydro and Hec_GeoHMS software of GIS, firstly flow direction map plotted. Secondly flow accumulation and stream flow network maps plotted, and by introducing the basin output to the program (Polechehr hydrometric station) borders of the basin identified and classification of the basin accomplished according to the three distinct height classes. Monitoring the snow surface cover during the daily time interval showed that the area covered with snow in winter season. This area decreases as the air temperature increases. The SRM model simulated the snowmelt of Gamasiab basin with good accurately, in which, the percent of volume error or Vd was lose than 2% and the R was above 0.9.
The results of this research showed that the using the images of MODIS yields a reasonable estimation of the snow cover area of Gamasiab with local of data. Also simulation results showed the high capability of the SRM in snowmelt runoff of the area under study. Result showed that the coefficient of determination and volume percent of error of model was 0.93 and %0.3 for 2014-2015 and it was 0.9 and 3.33 for 2015-2016 years, respectively. The results of this study, was in consistent with the previous studies fading in which in addition of model's parameters, physiographic characteristics, basin play a major role in the accuracy of the simulation. According to the calculated and observed runoff diagram, in both years of study, peak temperatures begin in March, as the weather warms and the snow melts, and will continue until April. Considering the snow cover, it can be concluded that the main runoff of March Peak is related to snowmelt, but with the change in the shape of precipitation from snow to rain and the warming of the weather, April peak is related to rain. Regardless of acceptable simulation results of the model, the lack of snow survey station in the study area, (yield the model to face with difficulty) in process. To overcome this shortcoming, we used the presumptions of the model and recommended values of the model.
 
Keywords: MODIS; Remote sensing; Runoff Snow; SRM; Gamasiab.       
Full-Text [PDF 699 kb]   (453 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2020/04/8 | Accepted: 2020/08/18 | Published: 2021/06/19

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