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mahmoudi F, ghadermazi H, Mafakheri L. Evaluation of risk management approach in reducing natural hazards in rural areas Case example:orchard of villages in the central part of Tuyserkan city. Journal of Spatial Analysis Environmental Hazards 2023; 10 (3) :123-138
URL: http://jsaeh.khu.ac.ir/article-1-3358-en.html
1- Associate Professor of Urban and Regional Planning, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Mazandaran University, Babolsar, Iran.
2- Associate Professor of Geography and Rural Planning, Department of human geography, Faculty of Geographical Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran. , ghadermazi@khu.ac.ir
3- PhD student of Geography and Rural Planning,Department of human geography, Faculty of Geographical Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract:   (561 Views)
Introduction
Every year, natural hazards occur with great severity and sometimes they destroy people completely Today, science has proven that natural hazards cannot be avoided. He simply considered a natural event and did not pay attention to their complex causes. Most of these causes are attributed to a combination of socio-economic factors. But it is possible to reduce their consequences by carefully planning against such accidents. When these hazards and disasters have a human aspect and affect humans, human activity and human environment, they are introduced as crisis.
According to the statistics of the Food and Agriculture Organization of FAO, 5-15% of agricultural products are lost annually due to damage caused by frost and frost, this number reaches more than 40% for some sensitive garden products, especially almonds, pistachios and apricots. . The amount of damage caused by this complication in Iran is more than 500 million dollars. Rural settlements suffer the most damage after a drought. Thus, there is a significant relationship between the risk management of agricultural activities with most environmental components and natural disasters such as drought, flood, frost, etc. up to the 99% confidence level. In order to reduce the effects of natural hazards in rural areas, there are various strategies that can be used to manage the risk of natural hazards , diversification of agricultural productio, contract farming and increasing farmers' awareness of natural hazards.
Gardens are one of the most important sources of livelihood in rural areas in Tuysarkan city in Hamadan province. Tuysarkan city has 7600 hectares of garden lands, which includes 14% of all gardens in Hamadan province. Due to its geographical location, weather conditions and geological structure, this city is exposed to various natural hazards. Among them, we can mention drought, land subsidence, frost and earthquake. Identifying natural hazards in Tuiserkan city and the effects of these hazards, as well as the actions of the local community to reduce existing hazards, are among the most important goals of this research.
Research Method
In the current research, we tried to use different methods so that the subject can be better investigated from different angles of research. This research is applied in terms of purpose and based on a descriptive-analytical research plan and is considered analytical-exploratory in nature. The research data has been collected through questionnaires and official statistics of institutions such as Iran Water Resources Management Company and the country's Meteorological Organization. Data analysis has been done descriptively and analytically using Excel and GIS software.

Research Results
The results of the research show that the most important hazards in the field of horticulture in the central part of Tuiserkan are frost in the first place and drought and hail in the second and third places. Also, other results show that the most important risk that affects the livelihood and income of the local community is the annual frost of gardens, which has caused the migration of some family members, and the amount of income is also affected by this risk. Regarding the solutions proposed by the local community to reduce the effects of natural hazards on walnut orchards, providing financial facilities, using information technology, and planting cold-resistant species were among the most important solutions proposed by the local community. Regarding the analysis of open questions and conducted interviews, Netaj shows that the most important measures to reduce the effects of natural hazards (freezing, drought and hail) on walnut orchards are: heating the orchard environment, using resistant and using drip irrigation. Also, the evaluation of the analysis of local knowledge and the experience of the past regarding measures to reduce the effects of frost on walnut orchards shows that the actions of the past are not very popular with the current generation and they are doing the same thing that the past did. With this difference, the ancients believed more in luck and destiny than in practical action. Finally, from the point of view of the local community, the best measure to reduce the effects of frost on the walnut orchards in the central part of Tuiserkan is genetic modification of the orchards and cultivation of resistant species.

 
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2023/01/13 | Accepted: 2023/12/2 | Published: 2023/09/23

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